Wednesday, 31 August 2016

(98) Inheritance patterns


Basic Dimension

http://sexualreligion.blogspot.com/ 









https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002052.htm

Autosomal recessive


Autosomal recessive is one of several ways that a trait, disorder, or disease can be passed down through families.

An autosomal recessive disorder means two copies of an abnormal gene must be present in order for the disease or trait to develop.

Information

Inheriting a specific disease, condition, or trait depends on the type of chromosome that is affected. The two types are autosomal chromosomes and sex chromosomes. It also depends on whether the trait is dominant or recessive.

A mutation in a gene on one of the first 22 nonsex chromosomes can lead to an autosomal disorder.

Genes come in pairs. One gene in each pair comes from the mother, and the other gene comes from the father. Recessive inheritance means both genes in a pair must be abnormal to cause disease. People with only one defective gene in the pair are called carriers. These people are most often not affected with the condition. However, they can pass the abnormal gene to their children.

CHANCES OF INHERITING A TRAIT

If you are born to parents who carry the same autosomal recessive change (mutation), you have a 1 in 4 chance of inheriting the abnormal gene from both parents and developing the disease. You have a 50% (1 in 2) chance of inheriting one abnormal gene. This would make you a carrier.

In other words, for a child born to a couple who both carry the gene (but do not have signs of disease), the expected outcome for each pregnancy is:
A 25% chance that the child is born with two normal genes (normal)
A 50% chance that the child is born with one normal and one abnormal gene (carrier, without disease)
A 25% chance that the child is born with two abnormal genes (at risk for the disease)

Note: These outcomes do not mean that the children will definitely be carriers or be severely affected.



https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/inheritance/inheritancepatterns







http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/hay-festival/8544359/Hay-Festival-2011-Professor-risks-political-storm-over-Muslim-inbreeding.html

Hay Festival 2011: Professor risks political storm over Muslim 'inbreeding’


Prof Steve Jones, one of Britain’s most eminent scientists, has warned that the level of inbreeding among the nation’s Muslims is endangering the health of future generations.

The geneticist said that it was common in the Islamic world for men to marry their nieces and cousins. He said that Bradford has a particular problem and warned that it could affect the health of children born into these marriages.
“It is common in the Islamic world to marry your brother’s daughter, which is actually closer than marrying your cousin.(..) We should be concerned about that as there can be a lot of hidden genetic damage. Children are much more likely to get two copies of a damaged gene.

He added: “Bradford is very inbred. There is a huge amount of cousins marrying each other there.” Research in Bradford has found that babies born to Pakistani women are twice as likely to die in their first year as babies born to white mothers, with genetic problems linked to inbreeding identified as a “significant” cause.

Studies have found that within the city, more than 70 per cent of marriages are between relations, with more than half involving first cousins.


Due to this, the risks of what are called autosomal recessive disorders such as cystic fibrosis and spinal muscular atrophy is 18x higher, while the risk of death due to gruesome malformations is 10x higher.   

                                          -----------------------------------------------
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/children/11723308/First-cousin-marriages-in-Pakistani-communities-leading-to-appalling-disabilities-among-children.html
First cousin marriages in Pakistani communities leading to 'appalling' disabilities among children.
"You go to any such family and there will be four or five children, at least one or two of whom will have some disability. That is absolutely unacceptable, and if we cannot do anything about it, is it fair to the children?" 
First-cousin marriages, which are are legal in the UK, are practised within Britain’s Pakistani community, as well as among some Arab and African families. Medical data previously suggested that while British Pakistanis were responsible for 3 per cent of all births, they accounted for 30 per cent of British children born with a genetic illness.


Autosomal dominant









X-linked dominant





X-linked recessive






Y-linked






Codominant







Mitochondrial








Assumption 280: Three elements likely caused the emergence of the Muslim instinct, which is male as well as female kin bonded to inbreeding and incest. This mutational abnormality is unprecedented in other inbreeding cultures, which are only bonded in the male lineage and where females are refreshed completely every generation (chimps, bonobos, Australopithecus africanus, Neanderthals and Aboriginals). This can be seen from mtDNA which is the same for males but different for females:

1: Inbreeding promotes tribal identity by genetic immortality in descendants since the Homininae (7 Ma; 400cc), the primal human-creature religion. Tribal identity revives in Muslim cultures in Western society today. Tribal identity is male and female kin bonded.

2: And since Homo erectus (2 Ma; 900cc) inbreeding also promotes the earthly reincarnation of Muslim fathers into descendants of their children.

3: And last but not least on the Arabian Peninsula (50 ka; 1400cc; mtDNA L3N) inbreeding was the only way to survive without the possibility to exchange fresh juvenile females. The perpetuation of this behavior despite adequate fresh juvenile females indicates an inbreeding-instinct mutation.








[From the forests they took with them the habit to exchange juvenile females with other groups (chimps and bonobos). This is the well known hunters-gatherers effect found back also in Neanderthals: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ki3rWqtAf8o
(40:41/1:22:30)









But on the other hand they enhanced tribal identity beyond the male mitochondrial DNA by closing the exogamous mantle for women as in today's Islam.]






http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110601/full/news.2011.338.html

Teeth from ancient human ancestors suggest that females joined new social groups once they reached maturity.


A chemical analysis of australopithecine fossils ranging between roughly 1.8 million and 2.2 million years old from two South African caves finds that teeth thought to belong to females are more likely to have incorporated minerals from a distant region during formation than those from males.


"What that's telling us is that the females grew up somewhere else and they died in the caves," says Julia Lee-Thorp, an archaeological scientist at the University of Oxford, UK. 






Paranthropus robustus (2 Ma; 400cc)

A 2011 study using ratios of strontium isotopes in teeth suggested that Australopithecus africanus and P. robustus groups in southern Africa were patrilocal: females tended to settle farther from their region of birth than males did.













Appendix

http://reaganiterepublicanresistance.blogspot.nl/2014/09/50-generations-of-ill-advised.html


In Pakistan, the inbred-marriage numbers approach 70%. Even in England, more than half of Pakistani immigrants are married to their first cousins (where their birth defects are the thing of legend), while in Denmark the number of inbred Pakistani immigrants was found to be approximately 40%.

Other Muslim countries: 67% in Saudi Arabia, 64% in Jordan, and Kuwait, 63% in Sudan, 60% in Iraq, and 54% in the United Arab Emirates and Qatar.  

Due to this, the risks of what are called autosomal recessive disorders such as cystic fibrosis and spinal muscular atrophy is 18x higher, while the risk of death due to gruesome malformations is 10x higher. 


Other negative consequences of inbreeding include a 100% increase in the risk of still births and a 50% increase in the possibility that a child will die during labor.

And not that anybody will be surprised, but such inbred children typically score 10-16 pts lower IQ, while social abilities also develop at a dramatically slower pace.




                                        



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